Apps Mission Skills Data About
ASSIGNMENTS & TESTS
How many assignments and tests contain certain keywords in the title in teachers’ grade books.

8,932,994titles scanned
183,016contain "vocab"
49,927contain "spelling"
17,541contain "quadratic"
2,489contain "credib" or "bias" (credible/credibility)*
2,348contain "synonym"
1,847contain "antonym"
1,756 contain "homonym" or "homophone" or "homograph"
1,106contain "fact" and "opinion"
606contain "fallac" (for fallacy/fallacies/fallacious)

Data was scanned from the JupiterEd.com database for U.S. K-12 public schools over 3 school years (Fall 2018–Spring 2021, excluding summer school).

Assignments and tests are a proxy for how often a skill is taught. Titles were the most consistent data available, since detailed instructions are in many different media and impractical to scan. However, teachers are not likely to use certain keywords in titles, like “correlation/causation”, “media literacy”, “plausibility”, and “experimental method”; and “motive” is ambiguously for fictional characters. So the title is a useful proxy for only some keywords.

* Assessing Credibility/Bias is probably a requirement in many other assignments where it’s not in the title, so it is probably taught often; plus it is well represented in the standards.

Comparison keywords were chosen that represent skills that require ongoing practice.


STANDARDS
How many CCSS/NGSS objectives cite each skill.

Standards Qty Grade
Experimental Design 1 5
Correlation/Causation 1 HS
Motive 1 8
Fact/Opinion* 3 6-8
Fallacious Reasoning 3 9-10
Credibility 10 6-12
Quadratic Equations 14 9-12
Vocabulary 17 4-12

* Fact/Opinion is in one standard for three years. I counted that as 3 because the standard is very focused on that one skill (see below). Other standards span multiple years, but the skill is just part of a long list, so I did not multiple those. The count is just a rough proxy for priority, since weighting is very subjective.

NGSS Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions: MS-PS2-5
Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. [Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and is limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.]
This is not quite what I’m looking for e.g. to detect the flaw in someone’s claim that a certain diet works because of anecdotal evidence. Furthermore NGSS does not mention “experimental method”, “control group”, “sample size”, “randomize”, “placebo”, or “blind”.

CCSS Math 9-12 Statistics & Probability: S-ID.C.9
Distinguish between correlation and causation.

CCSS applies only to math class. The Next Generation Science Standards does not directly mention correlation vs causation, but it does frequently cite “distinguishing between correlation and causation” in reference to a book: National Research Council 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

CCSS Language Arts 6-8 History Literacy: RH.6-8.8
Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

CCSS Language Arts 8 SL.8.2:
Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.

A couple writing standards include anticipating the reader’s biases, but none cites detecting a writer/speaker’s bias.

CCSS Language Arts 9-10: Informational Text: RI.9-10.8
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
CCSS Language Arts 9-10: Writing: W.9-10.9b
Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning).
CCSS Language Arts 9-10: Speaking & Listening: SL.9-10.3
Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

CCSS Language Arts 6: W.6.1b: Support claim(s)...using credible sources...
CCSS Language Arts 7: W.7.1b: Support claim(s)...accurate, credible sources...
CCSS Language Arts 8: W.8.1b: Support claim(s)...accurate, credible sources...
CCSS Language Arts 6-8: Hist/Sci Writing: WHST.6-8.1b: ...using credible sources.
CCSS Language Arts 6: W.6.8: ...assess the credibility of each source...
CCSS Language Arts 7: W.7.8: ...assess the credibility and accuracy of each source...
CCSS Language Arts 8: W.8.8: ...assess the credibility and accuracy of each source...
CCSS Language Arts 6-8: Hist/Sci Writing: WHST.6-8.8: ...assess the credibility and accuracy...
CCSS Language Arts 9-10: SL.9-10.2: ...evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
CCSS Language Arts 11-12: SL.11-12.2: ...evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source...

CCSS Math 9-12 Number & Quantity N-CN.C.7 Solve quadratic equations...
CCSS Math 9-12 Number & Quantity N-CN.C.9 (+) ...true for quadratic polynomials.
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-SSE.B.3a Factor a quadratic expression...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-SSE.B.3b Complete the square in a quadratic expression...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-CED.A.1 ...Include...linear and quadratic functions...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-REI.B.4 Solve quadratic equations...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-REI.B.4a ...transform any quadratic... Derive the quadratic formula...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-REI.B.4b Solve quadratic equations...quadratic formula...
CCSS Math 9-12 Algebra A-REI.C.7 Solve...quadratic equation...
CCSS Math 9-12 Functions F-IF.C.7a Graph linear and quadratic functions...
CCSS Math 9-12 Functions F-IF.C.8a ...factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function...
CCSS Math 9-12 Functions F-IF.C.9 ...a graph of one quadratic function...
CCSS Math 9-12 Functions F-LE.A.3 ...quantity increasing linearly, quadratically...
CCSS Math 9-12 Statistics & Probability S-ID.B.6a ...linear, quadratic, and exponential models.

CCSS Language Arts 4 W.4.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 5 W.5.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 6 W.6.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 6 L.6.6 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 7 W.7.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 7 L.7.6 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 8 W.8.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 8 L.8.6 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 9-10 W.9-10.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 9-10 L.9-10.6 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 11-12 W.11-12.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 11-12 L.11-12.6 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 6-8 History Literacy RH.6-8.4 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 6-8 History/Science Writing WHST.6-8.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 9-10 History Literacy RH.9-10.4 vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 9-10 History/Science Writing WHST.9-10.2d vocabulary
CCSS Language Arts 11-12 History/Science Writing WHST.11-12.2d vocabulary